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CARGO

This article is about transported goods. For other uses, see Cargo (disambiguation).
"Freight" redirects here. For the price paid in a voyage charter, see Freight rate.

Cargo (or freight) is goods or produce transported, generally for commercial gain, by ship, aircraft, train, van or truck. In modern times, containers are used in most intermodal long-haul cargo transport.

Marine

Container ship at Helsinki Port, Finland

There is a wide range of marine cargo handled at seaport terminals.

Automobiles are handled at many ports and are usually carried on specialized roll-on/roll-off ships.

Break bulk cargo is typically material stacked on wooden pallets and lifted into and out of the hold of a vessel by cranes on the dock or aboard the ship itself. The volume of break bulk cargo has declined dramatically worldwide as containerization has grown. A safe and secure way to secure break bulk and freight in containers is by using Dunnage Bags.

Bulk cargo, such as salt, oil, tallow, and Scrap metal, is usually defined as commodities that are neither on pallets nor in containers. Bulk cargoes are not handled as individual pieces, the way heavy-lift and project cargoes are. Alumina, grain, gypsum, logs and wood chips, for instance, are bulk cargoes.

Containers are the largest and fastest growing cargo category at most ports worldwide. Containerized cargo includes everything from auto parts, machinery and manufacturing components to shoes and toys to frozen meat and seafood.

Project cargo and the heavy lift cargo include items like manufacturing equipment, air conditioners, factory components, generators, wind turbines, military equipment, and almost any other oversized or overweight cargo which is too big or too heavy to fit into a container.

Air

Cargolux Boeing 747-400F with the nose loading door open
Main article: Air Cargo

Air cargo, commonly known as air freight, is collected by firms from shippers and delivered to customers. Aircraft were first used for carrying mail as cargo in 1911. Eventually manufacturers started designing aircraft for other types of freight as well.

There are many commercial aircraft suitable for carrying cargo such as the Boeing 747 and the bigger An-124, which was purposely built for easy conversion into a cargo aircraft. Such large aircraft employ quick-loading containers known as Unit Load Devices (ULDs), much like containerized cargo ships. The ULDs are located in front section of the aircraft.

Most nations own and utilize large numbers of cargo aircraft such as the C-17 Globemaster III for airlift logistic needs.

Train

Main article: Freight train
A picture of a P&O Nedlloyd inter-modal freight well car at Banbury station in the year 2001

Trains are capable of transporting large numbers of containers that come from shipping ports. Trains are also used for the transportation of steel, wood and coal. They are used because they can carry a large amount and generally have a direct route to the destination. Under the right circumstances, freight transport by rail is more economic and energy efficient than by road, especially when carried in bulk or over long distances.

The main disadvantage of rail freight is its lack of flexibility. For this reason, rail has lost much of the freight business to road transport. Rail freight is often subject to transshipment costs, since it must be transferred from one mode of transportation to another. Practices such as containerization aim at minimizing these costs.

Many governments are currently trying to encourage shippers to use trains more often because of the environmental benefits.

Road

Many firms, like Parcelforce, FedEx, and u-haul transport all types of cargo by road. Delivering everything from letters to houses to cargo containers, these firms offer fast, sometimes same-day, delivery.

A good example of road cargo is food, as supermarkets require deliveries every day to keep their shelves stocked with goods. Retailers of all kinds rely upon delivery trucks, be they full size semi trucks or smaller delivery vans.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
             
 
             
 
             
 
 
 
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